Poultry Farming

Poultry Farming is the rearing of Chicken, Ducks , Turkeys and Geese.

More than 50 billion chickens are reared annually as a source of food, for both their meat and their eggs. Chickens farmed for meat are called broilers, whilst those farmed for eggs are called egg-laying hens.[1] In total, the UK alone consumes over 29 million eggs per day. Some hens can produce over 300 eggs a year. Chickens will naturally live for 6 or more years.

Different Techniques in Poultry Farming


[2] This is the early stage poulty11.jpgof Poultry Farming it may look cute but it becomes this ->chicken_farm.jpg

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Here is the distribuation of chicken farming across the world.


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Different Types of Chicken Farming

Intensive / Commercial Farming

Intensive farming is an agricultural system that aims to produce maximum yield from available land. This farming is applicable to the yield of the livestock also. You could say food is produced in large quantities with the help of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The products such as eggs, meat and many agricultural products available in many supermarkets are produced using modern intensive farming. Intensive farming is practiced widely by many of the developed economies of the world. Sustainable intensive farming, intensive aquaculture, intensive live stock farming and managed intensive grazing fall under intensive farming. Here we look at both the advantages and the disadvantages of intensive farming.

Advantages of Intensive Farming


One of the major advantages of intensive farming is that its yield is high.
With the introduction of intensive farming, the farm produce such as vegetables, fruits and poultry products have become less expensive. This means that poor people can afford a balanced and nutritious diet. Many opine, organic food is affordable only to the rich and the elite strata of the society. Apart from that, large farming spaces are required to cultivate organic crops using natural manure. However, with the introduction of intensive farming, the space requirement for farming is less.
nother advantage of intensive farming is that large productivity of food is possible with less amount of land. This would help to meet the ever-growing demand for food supplies. Compared to the disadvantages, the advantages of intensive farming are less.

Disadvantages of Intensive Farming

Remember, intensive farming involves the usage of various kinds of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. Apart from this, intensive farming is also associated with farms that keep livestock above their holding capacity and this could lead to pollution and various diseases. Reports and studies reveal intensive farming affects and alters the environment in multiple ways. Forests are destroyed to create large open fields and this could lead to soil erosion. Intensive farming affects the natural habitats in the forests. Use of chemical fertilizers contaminates water bodies such as lakes and rivers near the farming land. The pesticides sprayed on crops not only destroy pests and contaminate the crops but also kill good insects. Eventually, these chemicals are passed on to the human beings.
The fruits and vegetables bought from farms that promote intensive farming are covered with invisible pesticide. These are not easily washed off. The residue of the pesticide affect the health of human beings. The statistics show, an increase in the number of cancer patients. Researchers opine, consumption of inorganic vegetables, fruits, poultry and meat could probably be one of the reasons. There are many hybrid varieties of livestock and poultry today. The livestock and poultry are injected with hormones and other chemicals to increase the yield. There is a tug of war between the animal rights activist and farmers of intensive farming. However, the debate is still on going without much success.

There are both pros and cons in promoting intensive farming. Intensive farming involves genetic selection and breeding of both plants and animals. Artificial growth hormones and inorganic plant nutrients are mixed with the fertilizers and livestock feed. This results in the highest yield of all time. On one side, the health of human beings is largely affected by intensive farming, while on the other side, it is argued that the poor and needy cannot simply afford organic food. [5]



Free Range Chicken Farming


Free range framing is when the poultry are allowed to move freely in the outdoors unlike commercial farming where they are packed into tight spaces and do not have much room to move and get very little fresh air. Free range framing has a number of rules such a chicken must spend at least half of its life outside in the fresh air and be allowed to move around freely as most of the chickens live for 56days they have to spend at least 28 days outside in addition the chickens must have constant access to the outside in the day and sheds to go into at night. A European rule is the each chicken must have one square meter of space to move about in.
The advantages for free range farming is that farmers find that the animals are a lot happier and therefore are more livelier which means that there is a higher quality of produce and allows the farmers to charge consumers more. Free range also allows the free range farming allows the chickens to grow naturally allowing them to have a natural diet and lifestyle, with both being a lot more suited to them than that if they reared in battery cages. The chickens aren't also made to grow quicker than they should therefore they don't suffer from the leg problems that chickens in batteries do, this allows them a better quality of life as they don't suffer from heart or leg problems not only this but they are allow to do natural activities such as pecking and scratching.
The disadvantages of free range farming are that finding a suitable farm for free range framing can take a very long time as the farm needs to have a number of factors such as:
Enough drainage so there aren’t any worms
Protection from strong winds and predators
Free range framing is also difficult as they can’t manage the heating like commercial farming as in free range framing the temperature can be too hot to cold and to damp these all have a major effect on the animals this is why battery farmers have more success than free range farmers as they are able to control the weather conditions.
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FootNote
1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poultry_farming#Techniques
2)http://www.pej.org/html/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=1968
3) http://www.pej.org/html/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=1968
4) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2004chicken.PNG
5) http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages-and-disadvantages-for-intensive-farming.html6)
6) http://www.infoaboutagriculture.co.uk/Free_Range_Farming/